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Because ecosystems are very complex systems, the quantification of their reactions to impacts or manipula tions is also complex. Fortunately, ecological modeling represents a well developed tool to survey ecosystems, their reactions, and the linkage of their components. Ecological modeling is able to synthesize our knowledge about an ecosystem, making it possible to quantify, to a certain degree, any changes in ecosystems resulting from the use of both environmental engineering and ecological engineering.

Ecological engineering may also be used directly to design constructed ecosystems. Consequently, ecological modeling and ecological engi neering are two closely cooperating fields. Research in ecological engineering was originally addressed in the Journal of Ecological Modelling, which was initially named Ecological Modelling Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA Journal on Ecological Modelling and Engineering and Systems Ecology to emphasize the close relationship between the three fields of ecologi cal modeling, ecological engineering, and systems ecology.

Ecological Engineering was launched as an inde pendent journal in 1992, with the name of Ecological Modelling being changed to Ecological Modelling - An International Journal on Ecological Modelling and Systems Ecology.

At the same time, the journal EcologicalEngineering has successfully covered the field of ecological engineering, which has grown rapidly during the 1990s due to increasing acknowledgment of the need to use technologies other than environmental technology in efforts to solve pollution problems. This development does not imply that ecological modeling and ecological engineering are moving in different directions.

On the contrary, ecological engineering has increasingly been using models to perform designs of constructed ecosys tems, or to quantify the results of applying specific ecological engineering methods for comparison to alter native, applicable methods. In addition, the relationship between ecological engi neering and systems ecology is very clear. Ecological principles are used widely in practical application of ecological engineering methods. Mitsch and J0rgensen have provided 19 principles that can be used as a checklist to assess if an ecological engineering project follows ecological principles, that is, to determine if a project is ecologically sound.

Ecosystems are used to reduce or solve a pollution problem that otherwise would be (more) harmful to other ecosystems. A typical example is the use of wet Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA for wastewater treatment.

Ecosystems are imitated or copied to reduce or solve a pollution problem, leading to constructed ecosystems. Examples are fishponds and constructed wetlands for treating wastewater or diffuse pollution sources. The recovery of ecosystems after significant distur bances. Examples are coal mine reclamation and restoration of lakes and rivers. The use of ecosystems for the benefit of Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA without destroying the ecological balance (i.

Typical examples are the use of integrated agriculture and development of organic agriculture; this type of ecotechnology finds wide application in the ecological Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA of renewable resources.

The rationale behind these four classes of ecotechnology is illustrated in Figure 1. It is noted that ecotechnology or ecological engineering operates Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA the environment and its ecosystems. As already mentioned, it is this domain that ecological engineering employs as its toolbox.

Reproduced by permission of Elsevier. Examples Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA provided in Table 1, where alternative environmental technological solutions bayer genuine aspirin also indicated. This does not imply that ecological engineering can replace envi ronmental engineering.

On the contrary, the two technologies should work hand in hand to solve environ mental management problems, better than they could do if applied individually. This is illustrated in type 1 eco logical engineering (application of ecosystems to reduce or solve pollution problems) by wetlands utilized to reduce diffuse nutrient loads to lakes.

This problem can not be solved by sex viagra technology.

Sludge treatment can be solved by environmental technology, namely by incineration. However, the ecological adjustable gastric band neering solution (i.

Figure 2 gives an example, where both ecological engineering and environ mental technology are applied to solve an environmental problem. The application of constructed wetlands to cope with diffuse pollution is a good example of type 2 ecological engineering. Again, this problem cannot be solved byFigure 2 Control of lake eutrophication, illustrating a combination of (1) chemical precipitation for phosphorus removal from wastewater (environmental technology); (2) a wetland to remove nutrients from the inflow (type procedia structural integrity or 2 ecotechnology); and (3) siphoning of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water downstream (type 3 ecotechnology).

The eutrophication abatement may also be combined in this case with biomanipulation. Figure 2 Control of lake eutrophication, illustrating a combination of (1) chemical precipitation for phosphorus removal from wastewater (environmental technology); (2) a wetland to remove nutrients from the inflow (type 1 or 2 ecotechnology); and (3) siphoning of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water downstream (type 3 ecotechnology).

A solution requiring fewer resources always will be a more ecologically sound solution. Although recovery of land contaminated by toxic Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA is possible using environmental technology, it will require transportation of the soil to a Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA treatmentplant, where biological biodegradation of the contami nants would take place.

Ecological engineering will propose an in situ treatment with adapted microorganisms or plants. The latter method will be much more cost effective, and the pollution related to transporting the soil will be omitted. Restoration of lakes by biomanipula tion, installation of an impoundment, sediment removal or coverage, siphoning of hypolimnetic water (rich in nutrients) downstream, or by several other proposed eco nmeday engineering techniques are examples of Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA 3 ecological engineering.

Type 4 ecological engineering is based, to a great extent, on pollution prevention by utilization ofecosystems on an ecologically sound basis. Although it Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA very difficult to find environmental engineering alternatives in this case, it is clear that a prudent harvest rate ofrenewable resources(whether, e.

Ecologically sound landscape planning is another example of the use of type 4 ecological engineering. Constructed subsurface wetlands may also be used to treat dairy farm wastewater, mine water Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA, textile wastewater, and pulp mill wastewater.

Mitsch WJ and J0rgensen SE (2003) Ecological Engineering andEcosystem Restoration, Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl)- FDA. Straskraba M (1985) Simulation Models as Tools in Ecotechnology Systems: Analysis and Simulation, vol. Continue reading here: Design Principles. Ecological Engineering combines the expertise of ecologists and engineers to assess and monitor, and design, reconstruct, and restore ecosystems for the mutual benefit of humans and nature.



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